State Highpoints May Offer Amazing View of 2017 Total Eclipse

With a new observation tower and a cleared top, Sassafras Mountain might be a prime spot to view the 2017 total solar eclipse.

With a cleared top and hopes of a new observation tower, Sassafras Mountain might be a prime spot to view the 2017 total solar eclipse.

[Ed: Club members may want to read the updated article (with times) “Two Minute Highpoint Party or ‘Highpointing In the Dark'” in Issue #117 – Second Quarter 2017 of the newsletter (in your mailboxes now)].

For the first time in nearly a century, a total solar eclipse will be visible across the United States, and given the projected path of totality, highpointers may be able to head to the top of  a few different states to watch the event unfold.

The Washington Post recently posted an article showing the projected path, and Eclipse2017.org gives more detailed listings of where the eclipse can be seen in totality.

Continue reading

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Issue #117 of “Apex to Zenith” Second Quarter 2017

Topic Page
50 Completers
• Tom Renaud
• Alison Schenk
2, 5
50 and 48 4
Article – Eclipse! 15
Article – Into Thick Air 36
Article – Origin of State Highpoint Names 27 – 31
Ask a Guide 12
Awards 12 – 13
Club Conventions 14
Club Operations Map 9
Completers Records 38 – 40
Completers pre-1959 41
Completers 48 45 – 46
Completers 50 42 – 44
Completers Lowpoints 9
Completers Tri-state Points 9
Editor’s Note 6
Errata 6
Guides and Outfitters 37
HP Difficulty Rating 10
HP Location Map 20
HPs Recognized by the Club 11
Highpoint Updates
• Alaska – Denali
• California – Mt Whitney
• Hawaii – Mauna Kea
• Illinois – Charles Mound
• Ohio – Campbell Hill
• Rhode Island – Jerimoth Hill
• Tennessee – Clingmans Dome
• Wisconsin – Timms Hill
18 – 19
How to Claim Credit for HPs 11
How the Club Began 8
Klimbin’ Kollaborator 9
Le Cache 6
Lists! – Contiguous 48 Ultras 21
MASSACHUSETTS 2017 24 – 26
Memoriabilia – postcards 16 – 17, 19
Merc 23
Milestones 32 – 36, 47
New Members 7, 22
Obituary – Miles Luke 22
Obituary – Ozzie 22
Obituary – Steve Fellstrom 22
President’s Message 6
Quiz – HP Geography 7
S.O.S. #41 Sunblocks and Sunscreens – part 2 or 2 20
Scholarship 8
Website 8

If you are interested in this back issue, please contact the newsletter editor (newsletter@highpointers.org).

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A 51st Highpoint? Puerto Ricans Vote in Statehood Referendum

Cerro de Punta, the highpoint of Puerto Rico (Credit: Ratzer1 | Wikipedia)

 

Highpointers may have to find a way to reach a 51st highpoint as Puerto Ricans headed to the polls Sunday to vote on a statehood referendum.

Voters were presented with the option to vote for independence/free association, keeping the status quo, or statehood.  The result of the vote, known as a plebiscite, is non-binding as the United States Congress would have to formally set forth conditions for statehood, and this not required in response to the vote.

However, let’s go down the rabbit hole and assume that the vote comes back supporting statehood (a strong possibility as many who oppose statehood are boycotting the vote), and Congress votes to extend statehood to Puerto Rico.

If Puerto Rico were to become a state, it’s highpoint is Cerro de Punta, a 4,390 foot mountain in the Cordillera Central, a mountain range that divides the island.  On a clear day, San Juan, which is 75 miles away, can be seen. 

The mountain’s elevation would place it between Kentucky’s Black Mountain and Vermont’s Mount Mansfield in elevation ranking. 

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Opportunity to Learn about Geocaching at the 2017 Massachusetts Convention

While chasing down the 50 highpoints, several highpointers dive into other adventures such as tripointing and lowpointing.  At the 2017 Highpointers Massachusetts Convention, highpointers will get the chance to learn about another hobby–geocaching.

For the uninitiated, geocaching is a real-world, outdoor treasure hunting game using GPS-enabled devices.

Some state highpoints, such as Backbone Mountain, Maryland, have geocaches hidden on them.  

Club members will have the opportunity to mingle with the geocachers of Berkshire GeoBash during the Massachusetts 2017 Highpointers Convention “Afternoon Delight” at Freight Yard Pub in North Adams on Friday, July 21st. The fun starts at 1 PM and goes until the last person crawls home at close.

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Highpoints by Volume

While looking for various mountain metrics I found the ORS (Spire) Measure as well as Tim Worth’s Steepness Measure which is a simplified version of ORS. I decided to try an intermediate measure – measuring the volume of the peak near the summit (100m) and at its shoulder (800m). The thought being that spires/towers will have a high volume at 100m, but their 800m volume won’t be that much larger. Whereas a flat-topped mountain will have a low volume at 100m, but their 800m volume will be much larger.

Imagine taking a core sample (100m or 800m radius) centered on the summit. Lower/drill a cylinder down until the entire bottom edge is contacting rock. This will occur at the “Max Drop” value Tim Worth calculates. Cut the cylinder off at this depth and calculate the volume of rock in the cylinder (core sample).

The ORS/Spire Measure uses integrals and a complex function to calculate the volume of a peak. I simplified this by measuring discreet rings from the center to the cylinder’s radius. I used 20m increments for the 100m cylinder and 100m increments for the 800m cylinder. The first level is simply a right triangular pyramid (triangle in 2D). All subsequent layers are a horizontal triangular prism (wedge) (triangle in 2D) and a vertical triangular wedge (cheese wedge) (rectangle in 2D). For all angles except for the Max Drop (Max Bearing), I add in a final vertical triangular wedge (cheese wedge) (rectangle in 2D) which brings all angles down to Max Drop level. You can see this in the graph below for Borah Peak, Idaho at 100m. The left side is along the Min Drop bearing, while the right side is along the Max Drop bearing.
The image on the right shows an exaggerated view (30° angle instead of a 1° angle) from the top. The color-coded layers match in the two graphics. The shaded triangles would form small right triangular pyramids but these were not included in the volume measurements below.

We can compare the 100m and 800m volumes in a couple of ways:

Let’s look at Mount Greylock, Massachusetts which has a median 100m volume but a higher than median 800m volume:

while White Butte, North Dakota has a higher than median 100m volume but a lower than median 800m volume:

and Granite Peak, Montana which has a very high 100m volume but an mostly equivalent 800m volume to Mount Greylock:

This is where I throw up my hands. While I (Clint Kaul) consider Granite Peak to be “steep” at 800m (and at 100m), I personally wouldn’t call Mount Greylock “steep” at 800m. Although they have roughly equivalent 800m volumes. I have a feeling we need an additional factor to help determine “steepness”. Maybe factor in the peak’s Prominence or the Max Drop value? Or look at the ratio of Avg Drop to Max Drop (as seen in this graphic – AvgMax xxx is the (Avg Drop)/(Max Drop) at 100m and 800m). The idea being if the Avg Drop is close to the Max Drop we are looking at a “conical” peak, while an Avg Drop far from Max Drop might indicate a flatter peak with a steep ravine/cliff on one side.

Looking at the radar plots above, maybe count the number of lobes (number of ravines/cliffs) or the size of the lobes or the variance in the size of the lobes [see the “Max StdDev” columns in the 100m/800m specific tables below]? Or perhaps look at intermediate angles (for example, 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100) and compare them to the overall angle (at 100m in this example) [see the “Sub Angle” columns in the 100m/800m specific tables below]. Another crazy idea is documented in Appendix – Drops as a Waveform. If you have comments/thoughts on this, please contact me clintkaul@highpointers.org.


This table shows the summary “volume” metrics for 100m/800m
Max 100 – maximum drop in feet at 100m
Avg 100 – average drop in feet at 100m
Vol 100 – volume in cubic feet at 100m
Max 800 – maximum drop in feet at 800m
Avg 800 – average drop in feet at 800m
Vol 800 – volume in cubic feet at 800m

State Max 100 Avg 100 Vol 100 Max 800 Avg 800 Vol 800
Alabama72ft43ft15,453760ft410ft11,109,947
Alaska288ft137ft69,8222,324ft1,336ft31,649,978
Arizona162ft120ft30,8881,732ft1,195ft19,833,242
Arkansas36ft20ft8,647659ft361ft9,211,388
California707ft301ft181,5962,214ft1,400ft23,339,690
Colorado215ft115ft49,3621,821ft1,108ft23,642,352
Connecticut*89ft44ft21,318550ft412ft4,952,268
Delaware11ft5ft2,45472ft43ft902,008
Florida15ft6ft4,21482ft44ft1,035,122
Georgia197ft98ft47,5661,391ft824ft16,857,292
Hawaii164ft99ft36,1171,019ft625ft11,967,647
Idaho305ft224ft56,0642,400ft1,553ft26,799,085
Illinois57ft40ft10,044243ft155ft2,659,698
Indiana10ft5ft1,80539ft24ft438,452
Iowa15ft9ft3,16153ft31ft585,029
Kansas9ft5ft2,15486ft44ft1,090,044
Kentucky64ft32ft15,851794ft378ft11,090,176
Louisiana73ft39ft17,598272ft204ft2,326,256
Maine331ft140ft83,0742,192ft1,055ft30,567,171
Maryland100ft61ft20,415630ft429ft6,646,829
Massachusetts78ft43ft18,5561,509ft799ft21,053,753
Michigan65ft31ft15,767400ft222ft5,226,018
Minnesota58ft32ft13,216465ft332ft4,022,593
Mississippi113ft70ft24,384314ft227ft2,225,654
Missouri10ft6ft2,021320ft150ft5,257,493
Montana798ft359ft193,4442,339ft1,451ft23,604,277
Nebraska27ft15ft6,14575ft48ft855,682
Nevada265ft173ft51,3102,053ft1,331ft24,122,283
New Hampshire103ft60ft22,4821,131ft845ft12,672,278
New Jersey128ft72ft27,738673ft372ft8,590,545
New Mexico246ft137ft53,2031,705ft979ft21,430,622
New York193ft112ft42,2501,428ft998ft15,695,724
North Carolina152ft102ft29,0221,229ft754ft15,410,587
North Dakota157ft80ft35,666348ft281ft2,420,387
Ohio39ft24ft8,064115ft69ft1,360,123
Oklahoma8ft2ft2,251569ft257ft8,929,449
Oregon510ft231ft117,0312,440ft1,777ft26,103,416
Pennsylvania12ft5ft2,542325ft149ft5,200,714
Rhode Island24ft10ft6,164118ft70ft1,418,876
South Carolina172ft89ft41,774800ft529ft8,798,033
South Dakota300ft176ft55,3701,262ft842ft14,160,233
Tennessee69ft44ft15,2901,378ft760ft18,208,461
Texas310ft208ft58,6682,668ft1,390ft34,739,880
Utah354ft189ft74,4591,884ft1,219ft21,771,149
Vermont300ft146ft70,4231,518ft1,067ft17,026,076
Virginia98ft44ft23,9541,011ft568ft14,032,558
Washington125ft74ft22,6701,424ft911ft18,906,885
West Virginia91ft32ft25,4081,298ft572ft19,684,073
Wisconsin96ft60ft20,321162ft120ft906,464
Wyoming433ft203ft98,9642,094ft1,492ft20,515,237
District of Columbia37ft17ft9,153164ft101ft1,863,958
American Samoa553ft209ft146,9071,630ft775ft20,587,171
Guam124ft77ft22,935947ft494ft12,839,116
Northern Marianas Is0ft0ft00ft0ft0
Puerto Rico282ft135ft65,6161,296ft937ft13,105,057
US Virgin Is127ft67ft28,989963ft637ft11,380,888

* – Note that Connecticut is measured from Mount Frissell, MA (the summit) versus the contour line on the CT/MA border.
* – Note that Northern Marianas Islands has no spot elevations


These scatter plots show how the Max Drop (left) and Avg Drop (right) compare to the Volume at 100m. You’ll notice that the Max Drop is highly correlated to the Volume, but this is due to how we calculate the volume – down to Max Drop in all directions.

This heat map is color-coded based upon the Volume metric at 100m.

I’ve recently calculated the maximum sub-angle and standard deviation of the drops in all directions at 100m. This graphic summarizes this information. It seems like the standard deviation is a good indication of the steepness near the summit area.

This table shows the “volume” metrics for 100m
Max Drop – maximum drop in feet
Max Angle – maximum angle [atan(max drop/100m)] in degrees
Sub Angle – maximum sub-angle found (0-20m, 20-40m, 40-60m, 60-80m, 80-100m)
Max StdDev – sample standard deviation of the drops in all directions at 100m
Avg Drop – average drop in feet
Avg Angle – average angle [atan(avg drop/100m)] in degrees
Volume – volume in cubic feet

State Max Drop Max Angle Sub Angle Max StdDev Avg Drop Avg Angle Volume
Alabama72.3ft12.4°23.1°16.02243.4ft7.5°15,453
Alaska287.9ft41.3°57.4°60.998137.4ft22.7°69,822
Arizona162.5ft26.3°46.4°35.974119.7ft20.1°30,888
Arkansas35.9ft6.3°13.4°6.23920.3ft3.5°8,647
California707.3ft65.1°75.7°199.937300.6ft42.5°181,596
Colorado215.2ft33.3°48.0°55.347115.3ft19.4°49,362
Connecticut*88.6ft15.1°35.0°18.61244.2ft7.7°21,318
Delaware10.5ft1.8°5.1°2.6665.0ft0.9°2,454
Florida15.2ft2.6°7.2°4.4805.5ft1.0°4,214
Georgia197.0ft31.0°54.7°33.16198.0ft16.6°47,566
Hawaii163.6ft26.5°42.0°35.42798.8ft16.8°36,117
Idaho305.1ft42.9°57.1°53.312224.4ft34.4°56,064
Illinois56.6ft9.8°19.2°14.17240.2ft7.0°10,044
Indiana9.8ft1.7°4.1°2.1355.4ft0.9°1,805
Iowa15.1ft2.6°4.8°3.0439.0ft1.6°3,161
Kansas9.3ft1.6°3.4°2.4895.2ft0.9°2,154
Kentucky63.6ft11.0°20.9°15.61132.4ft5.6°15,851
Louisiana73.2ft12.6°27.2°20.47639.5ft6.9°17,598
Maine330.8ft45.2°58.6°90.598140.2ft23.1°83,074
Maryland99.6ft16.9°26.1°25.01060.9ft10.5°20,415
Massachusetts78.3ft13.4°32.1°14.68742.6ft7.4°18,556
Michigan65.0ft11.2°18.4°17.84431.5ft5.5°15,767
Minnesota58.4ft10.1°25.1°9.58232.3ft5.6°13,216
Mississippi112.8ft19.0°31.4°19.93670.5ft12.1°24,384
Missouri9.7ft1.7°2.6°1.5825.7ft1.0°2,021
Montana798.2ft67.7°78.1°215.824359.3ft47.6°193,444
Nebraska27.4ft4.8°9.0°7.52015.0ft2.6°6,145
Nevada264.9ft38.9°52.6°45.798173.1ft27.8°51,310
New Hampshire103.4ft17.5°25.3°27.51759.8ft10.3°22,482
New Jersey127.9ft21.3°44.0°26.22572.2ft12.4°27,738
New Mexico245.5ft36.8°46.2°53.384137.2ft22.7°53,203
New York193.5ft30.5°39.9°39.837111.6ft18.8°42,250
North Carolina152.5ft24.9°35.5°29.926101.7ft17.2°29,022
North Dakota157.3ft25.6°39.2°38.69679.5ft13.6°35,666
Ohio39.4ft6.8°16.7°9.31523.9ft4.2°8,064
Oklahoma7.7ft1.4°2.8°2.0921.8ft0.3°2,251
Oregon509.7ft57.2°69.9°148.325231.5ft35.2°117,031
Pennsylvania11.6ft2.0°5.2°3.0275.5ft1.0°2,542
Rhode Island24.0ft4.2°12.7°5.14210.3ft1.8°6,164
South Carolina172.2ft27.7°51.6°41.65389.5ft15.3°41,774
South Dakota299.8ft42.4°63.8°76.034175.8ft28.2°55,370
Tennessee68.5ft11.8°25.0°11.03543.7ft7.6°15,290
Texas309.8ft43.4°60.8°61.873208.4ft32.4°58,668
Utah354.3ft47.2°61.2°81.405189.1ft30.0°74,459
Vermont300.0ft42.4°55.8°83.740145.7ft23.9°70,423
Virginia97.8ft16.6°26.7°23.67544.0ft7.6°23,954
Washington124.7ft20.8°39.8°27.72074.4ft12.8°22,670
West Virginia90.6ft15.4°39.4°23.73332.3ft5.6°25,408
Wisconsin96.1ft16.3°26.7°13.02460.1ft10.4°20,321
Wyoming433.3ft52.9°65.8°98.532202.8ft31.7°98,964
District of Columbia37.3ft6.5°18.8°11.59017.1ft3.0°9,153
American Samoa552.6ft59.3°70.2°172.722208.6ft32.4°146,907
Guam124.1ft20.7°45.6°33.38077.4ft13.3°22,935
Northern Marianas Is0.0ft0.0°0.0°0.0000.0ft0.0°0
Puerto Rico282.4ft40.7°60.1°61.921135.4ft22.4°65,616
US Virgin Is127.4ft21.2°40.8°32.77967.0ft11.5°28,989

* – Note that Connecticut is measured from Mount Frissell, MA (the summit) versus the contour line on the CT/MA border.
* – Note that Northern Marianas Islands has no spot elevations


This scatter plot compares the standard deviation (stddev) at 100m versus at 800m. While the comparison doesn’t mean much, it helps identify comparable peaks.

Let’s look at Massachusetts (left) and Oregon (right) which have equivalent stddev at 800m, but Oregon has a vastly greater 100m stddev. Looking at the 100m ring (blue) you’ll see Massachusetts is much flatter than Oregon.

Now let’s look at South Dakota (left) and Texas (right) which have equivalent stddev at 100m, but Texas has a vastly greater 800m stddev. Looking at the 800m ring (orange) you’ll see Texas has more ridges/valleys than South Dakota.

 


These scatter plots show how the Max Drop (left) and Avg Drop (right) compare to the Volume at 100m. You’ll notice that the Max Drop is highly correlated to the Volume, but this is due to how we calculate the volume – down to Max Drop in all directions.

This heat map is color-coded based upon the Volume metric at 800m.

I’ve recently calculated the maximum sub-angle and standard deviation of the drops in all directions at 800m. This graphic summarizes this information. It seems like the standard deviation is a good indication of the steepness near the shoulder area.

This table shows the “volume” metrics for 800m
Max Drop – maximum drop in feet
Max Angle – maximum angle [atan(max drop/100m)] in degrees
Sub Angle – maximum sub-angle found (0-100m, 100-200m, …, 700-800m)
Max StdDev – sample standard deviation of the drops in all directions at 800m
Avg Drop – average drop in feet
Avg Angle – average angle [atan(avg drop/100m)] in degrees
Volume – volume in cubic feet

State Max Drop Max Angle Sub Angle Max StdDev Avg Drop Avg Angle Volume
Alabama760.2ft16.2°36.4°171.268409.6ft8.9°11,109,947
Alaska2,323.8ft41.5°56.0°418.2451,336.3ft27.0°31,649,978
Arizona1,732.3ft33.4°47.1°291.6291,194.5ft24.5°19,833,242
Arkansas658.9ft14.1°35.3°185.904361.3ft7.8°9,211,388
California2,213.5ft40.1°71.0°455.6481,399.8ft28.1°23,339,690
Colorado1,820.5ft34.7°42.8°336.6791,108.3ft22.9°23,642,352
Connecticut*549.6ft11.8°33.3°101.507411.8ft8.9°4,952,268
Delaware71.8ft1.6°5.3°15.13042.7ft0.9°902,008
Florida81.7ft1.8°5.2°21.48343.5ft1.0°1,035,122
Georgia1,390.6ft27.9°44.2°236.954824.0ft17.4°16,857,292
Hawaii1,018.7ft21.2°34.7°245.578625.0ft13.4°11,967,647
Idaho2,400.0ft42.4°56.9°458.0411,552.9ft30.6°26,799,085
Illinois242.8ft5.3°9.9°59.737154.8ft3.4°2,659,698
Indiana38.8ft0.8°3.1°6.29124.2ft0.5°438,452
Iowa52.6ft1.1°3.5°9.17331.3ft0.7°585,029
Kansas85.9ft1.9°3.4°18.89744.3ft1.0°1,090,044
Kentucky794.4ft16.8°27.8°178.967377.8ft8.2°11,090,176
Louisiana271.6ft5.9°15.4°34.993203.9ft4.4°2,326,256
Maine2,191.9ft39.9°58.7°518.5761,054.9ft21.9°30,567,171
Maryland630.0ft13.5°25.6°141.355428.5ft9.3°6,646,829
Massachusetts1,508.7ft29.9°46.2°355.080798.6ft16.9°21,053,753
Michigan400.2ft8.7°23.1°104.196221.6ft4.8°5,226,018
Minnesota465.4ft10.1°32.5°87.140332.3ft7.2°4,022,593
Mississippi314.0ft6.8°20.7°48.547226.8ft4.9°2,225,654
Missouri320.3ft7.0°17.5°80.120150.0ft3.3°5,257,493
Montana2,338.7ft41.7°67.7°528.2911,451.2ft28.9°23,604,277
Nebraska75.0ft1.6°4.8°14.02347.6ft1.0°855,682
Nevada2,052.9ft38.0°48.5°493.2231,331.2ft26.9°24,122,283
New Hampshire1,131.5ft23.3°40.7°206.497844.6ft17.8°12,672,278
New Jersey673.1ft14.4°27.3°143.936372.0ft8.1°8,590,545
New Mexico1,704.9ft33.0°40.2°432.558979.1ft20.5°21,430,622
New York1,428.0ft28.5°36.9°239.469997.8ft20.8°15,695,724
North Carolina1,229.3ft25.1°39.1°261.610754.1ft16.0°15,410,587
North Dakota347.5ft7.5°25.6°44.265281.1ft6.1°2,420,387
Ohio115.4ft2.5°6.8°17.51468.7ft1.5°1,360,123
Oklahoma569.1ft12.2°30.1°233.842257.0ft5.6°8,929,449
Oregon2,440.3ft42.9°58.9°357.7761,776.5ft34.1°26,103,416
Pennsylvania325.3ft7.1°17.1°77.827148.6ft3.2°5,200,714
Rhode Island117.7ft2.6°6.3°28.66569.8ft1.5°1,418,876
South Carolina799.9ft17.0°38.9°144.173528.5ft11.4°8,798,033
South Dakota1,261.6ft25.7°53.4°226.567841.5ft17.8°14,160,233
Tennessee1,378.3ft27.7°39.7°324.532759.5ft16.1°18,208,461
Texas2,668.5ft45.5°73.8°658.8041,389.8ft27.9°34,739,880
Utah1,884.1ft35.7°50.7°415.9211,219.3ft24.9°21,771,149
Vermont1,518.2ft30.0°42.4°280.0071,067.0ft22.1°17,026,076
Virginia1,011.2ft21.1°25.9°197.146568.2ft12.2°14,032,558
Washington1,424.1ft28.5°44.5°252.566911.1ft19.1°18,906,885
West Virginia1,298.1ft26.3°42.0°326.817571.9ft12.3°19,684,073
Wisconsin162.5ft3.5°16.4°35.249120.0ft2.6°906,464
Wyoming2,093.6ft38.6°62.3°333.4761,491.7ft29.6°20,515,237
District of Columbia164.4ft3.6°9.4°30.361100.9ft2.2°1,863,958
American Samoa1,630.0ft31.8°63.7°530.783775.3ft16.5°20,587,171
Guam947.3ft19.8°37.0°266.092494.3ft10.7°12,839,116
Northern Marianas Is0.0ft0.0°0.0°0.0000.0ft0.0°0
Puerto Rico1,296.1ft26.3°46.0°208.876936.8ft19.6°13,105,057
US Virgin Is962.8ft20.1°34.7°186.681636.5ft13.6°11,380,888

* – Note that Connecticut is measured from Mount Frissell, MA (the summit) versus the contour line on the CT/MA border.
* – Note that Northern Marianas Islands has no spot elevations


Appendix – Drops as a Waveform

Looking at the lobes in the radar plots got me thinking. How do I calculate the area? It turns out to be "Avg Drop" * 360. Initially I was going to “unwrap” the circle into a straight line and figure the area under the line. For example, see Massachusetts (left) versus Montana (right) at 100m:

That triggered the crazy idea. What if we treat this as a [triangular] waveform? Maybe by looking at amplitudes or frequencies we can find a “steepness measure”? To test the idea I sub-sampled 256 points out of the 360 data points and applied a fast fourier transform to come up with the following table.

This table shows the “statistics” and “fft” metrics for 100m and 800m
Avg 100 – average drop at 100m in feet
StdDev 100 – sample standard deviation of the drops in all directions at 100m
NyqF 100 – Nyquist frequency at 100m
Freq 100 – maximum frequency at 100m
Avg 800 – average drop in feet at 800m
StdDev 800 – sample standard deviation of the drops in all directions at 800m
NyqF 800 – Nyquist frequency at 800m
Freq 800 – maximum frequency at 800m

State Avg 100 StdDev 100 NyqF 100 Freq 100 Avg 800 StdDev 800 NyqF 800 Freq 800
Alabama43.4ft16.02234.512238.734409.6ft171.268132.3923679.796
Alaska137.4ft60.99891.457568.8521,336.3ft418.2456.6159111.838
Arizona119.7ft35.97454.474547.6961,194.5ft291.6295.4929124.852
Arkansas20.3ft6.23918.41774.815361.3ft185.90413.6720040.198
California300.6ft199.937131.1228259.0841,399.8ft455.648269.4768015.879
Colorado115.3ft55.34733.896950.8451,108.3ft336.679142.3841412.361
Connecticut*44.2ft18.61217.962326.978411.8ft101.50751.2113673.414
Delaware5.0ft2.6666.07355.60342.7ft15.1302.581874.462
Florida5.5ft4.4804.29710.27343.5ft21.4836.652838.075
Georgia98.0ft33.16130.943934.454824.0ft236.95488.2724851.601
Hawaii98.8ft35.42779.184090.408625.0ft245.578126.1639437.232
Idaho224.4ft53.31268.677022.0011,552.9ft458.04162.6147693.818
Illinois40.2ft14.17248.511966.019154.8ft59.7372.329408.197
Indiana5.4ft2.1352.18224.91124.2ft6.2910.44700.781
Iowa9.0ft3.0431.74399.65231.3ft9.17315.051089.824
Kansas5.2ft2.4891.38390.24644.3ft18.8979.902031.245
Kentucky32.4ft15.61129.022260.034377.8ft178.96724.5514455.751
Louisiana39.5ft20.47624.373015.755203.9ft34.99316.104166.857
Maine140.2ft90.59845.8811631.8181,054.9ft518.57663.9967391.376
Maryland60.9ft25.0105.513977.921428.5ft141.3556.6217326.569
Massachusetts42.6ft14.68712.172127.277798.6ft355.08037.2754080.446
Michigan31.5ft17.84411.152886.933221.6ft104.1965.1411805.974
Minnesota32.3ft9.58216.261409.071332.3ft87.1403.2510678.416
Mississippi70.5ft19.9365.962156.416226.8ft48.54770.517737.620
Missouri5.7ft1.5822.08188.378150.0ft80.12044.3410944.104
Montana359.3ft215.82457.8325401.3051,451.2ft528.291239.8255766.262
Nebraska15.0ft7.5209.891212.33047.6ft14.0233.291406.927
Nevada173.1ft45.79820.764600.9041,331.2ft493.223112.2263543.818
New Hampshire59.8ft27.5171.384826.491844.6ft206.497165.6520561.316
New Jersey72.2ft26.22567.383879.716372.0ft143.93612.5023448.873
New Mexico137.2ft53.38441.266827.677979.1ft432.5585.2158625.209
New York111.6ft39.8376.415810.204997.8ft239.4699.2339203.334
North Carolina101.7ft29.92615.314053.613754.1ft261.610314.3136849.699
North Dakota79.5ft38.69617.854339.846281.1ft44.26543.925099.015
Ohio23.9ft9.31510.021304.67368.7ft17.51421.742036.610
Oklahoma1.8ft2.0920.81286.482257.0ft233.84246.0338300.758
Oregon231.5ft148.325128.8023203.7051,776.5ft357.776142.5454993.740
Pennsylvania5.5ft3.0274.59480.236148.6ft77.82715.327717.360
Rhode Island10.3ft5.1427.47694.38269.8ft28.66516.893983.171
South Carolina89.5ft41.65329.115438.993528.5ft144.17328.5218970.453
South Dakota175.8ft76.03420.269148.726841.5ft226.5676.5630164.997
Tennessee43.7ft11.03512.841512.817759.5ft324.53277.6441242.199
Texas208.4ft61.87313.759904.6261,389.8ft658.804126.1489682.802
Utah189.1ft81.40543.8310285.2921,219.3ft415.92162.5761812.950
Vermont145.7ft83.74059.5812139.0031,067.0ft280.007231.1136354.675
Virginia44.0ft23.67512.793374.423568.2ft197.14612.2926841.783
Washington74.4ft27.72017.953194.819911.1ft252.56629.3135059.561
West Virginia32.3ft23.73326.123780.225571.9ft326.81781.6346395.254
Wisconsin60.1ft13.0242.571627.426120.0ft35.249122.024169.816
Wyoming202.8ft98.532179.4111822.8171,491.7ft333.4763.5147124.965
District of Columbia17.1ft11.59017.411715.534100.9ft30.36138.843605.291
American Samoa208.6ft172.7223.6227097.092775.3ft530.783127.5171768.384
Guam77.4ft33.38025.963993.218494.3ft266.09279.4742928.356
Northern Marianas Is0.0ft0.0000.000.0000.0ft0.0000.000.000
Puerto Rico135.4ft61.92146.498915.065936.8ft208.876307.9025701.945
US Virgin Is67.0ft32.77938.474953.687636.5ft186.68192.8820974.080

* – Note that Connecticut is measured from Mount Frissell, MA (the summit) versus the contour line on the CT/MA border.
* – Note that Northern Marianas Islands has no spot elevations

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Climbing season begins at Denali National Park

KTUU (Talkeetna, AK) is reporting that the climbing season for Denali National Park is starting. According to park spokeswoman Maureen Gualtieri “We’re expecting a pretty typical season in terms of the numbers of visitors numbers of climbers on the two peaks.”

Read the full article for more details.

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Highpoints by Prominence, Isolation and Dominance

This map is based upon Prominence and Isolation data from Peakbagger and Eberhard Jurgalski’s work on Dominance. The icons are color-coded by their Altitude Class (Dominance). Each summit is linked to its Prominence Key-Col (horse icon) by a purple line and has a separate orange line drawn to its ILP (Isolation Limit Point).

These two scatter plots show the Prominence height versus the Isolation distance in linear (left) and log (right – for better readability) scales. I then ran a clustering algorithm to form clusters of peaks which are color-coded in the table below.

This table presents other meausres used to quantify summits:
Prom – Prominence is the vertical distance between peak and key col
Iso – Isolation is the radius of dominance
Dom – Dominance as defined by Eberhard Jurgalski

State Elev Prom Iso Dom
Alabama2,407ft / 734m1,445ft / 440m106.79mi / 171.85km60.03
Alaska20,320ft / 6,194m20,146ft / 6,140m4,615.93mi / 7,428.62km99.14
Arizona12,633ft / 3,851m6,039ft / 1,841m245.65mi / 395.34km47.80
Arkansas2,753ft / 839m2,133ft / 650m372.89mi / 600.11km77.48
California14,494ft / 4,418m10,078ft / 3,072m1,647.84mi / 2,651.94km69.53
Colorado14,433ft / 4,399m9,073ft / 2,765m669.15mi / 1,076.89km62.86
Connecticut*2,380ft / 725m0ft / 0m0.00mi / 0.00km0.00
Delaware448ft / 137m32ft / 10m0.75mi / 1.20km7.14
Florida345ft / 105m65ft / 20m5.94mi / 9.56km18.84
Georgia4,784ft / 1,458m2,108ft / 642m15.87mi / 25.55km44.06
Hawaii13,796ft / 4,205m13,796ft / 4,205m2,452.09mi / 3,946.26km100.00
Idaho12,662ft / 3,859m5,982ft / 1,823m150.36mi / 241.98km47.24
Illinois1,235ft / 376m95ft / 29m2.50mi / 4.03km7.69
Indiana1,257ft / 383m297ft / 90m46.65mi / 75.07km23.63
Iowa1,670ft / 509m40ft / 12m4.48mi / 7.22km2.40
Kansas4,039ft / 1,231m19ft / 6m29.48mi / 47.44km0.47
Kentucky4,145ft / 1,263m1,899ft / 579m14.65mi / 23.58km45.81
Louisiana535ft / 163m225ft / 69m86.26mi / 138.82km42.06
Maine5,268ft / 1,606m4,288ft / 1,307m158.14mi / 254.50km81.40
Maryland3,360ft / 1,024m80ft / 24m6.45mi / 10.38km2.38
Massachusetts3,491ft / 1,064m2,463ft / 751m23.67mi / 38.09km70.55
Michigan1,979ft / 603m948ft / 289m123.04mi / 198.01km47.90
Minnesota2,301ft / 701m1,321ft / 402m435.83mi / 701.39km57.41
Mississippi806ft / 246m296ft / 91m12.44mi / 20.02km36.72
Missouri1,772ft / 540m512ft / 156m148.18mi / 238.48km28.89
Montana12,799ft / 3,901m4,759ft / 1,450m86.06mi / 138.50km37.18
Nebraska5,424ft / 1,653m26ft / 8m1.37mi / 2.20km0.48
Nevada13,140ft / 4,005m253ft / 77m0.53mi / 0.86km1.93
New Hampshire6,288ft / 1,917m6,148ft / 1,874m819.14mi / 1,318.27km97.77
New Jersey1,803ft / 550m883ft / 270m23.68mi / 38.10km48.97
New Mexico13,161ft / 4,011m3,409ft / 1,039m37.07mi / 59.66km25.90
New York5,343ft / 1,629m4,914ft / 1,498m129.29mi / 208.06km91.97
North Carolina6,684ft / 2,037m6,089ft / 1,856m1,186.29mi / 1,909.14km91.10
North Dakota3,506ft / 1,069m546ft / 167m37.46mi / 60.28km15.57
Ohio1,550ft / 472m639ft / 195m168.98mi / 271.95km41.23
Oklahoma4,973ft / 1,516m0ft / 0m0.41mi / 0.66km0.00
Oregon11,239ft / 3,426m7,706ft / 2,349m57.33mi / 92.27km68.56
Pennsylvania3,213ft / 979m653ft / 199m25.02mi / 40.27km20.32
Rhode Island812ft / 247m192ft / 58m13.31mi / 21.42km23.65
South Carolina3,560ft / 1,085m754ft / 230m9.30mi / 14.96km21.18
South Dakota7,242ft / 2,207m2,911ft / 887m139.40mi / 224.34km40.20
Tennessee6,643ft / 2,025m4,503ft / 1,373m70.59mi / 113.61km67.79
Texas8,749ft / 2,667m3,029ft / 924m72.70mi / 117.00km34.62
Utah13,528ft / 4,123m6,348ft / 1,935m166.70mi / 268.27km46.92
Vermont4,393ft / 1,339m3,633ft / 1,107m51.85mi / 83.44km82.70
Virginia5,729ft / 1,746m2,449ft / 746m40.55mi / 65.26km42.75
Washington14,411ft / 4,392m13,210ft / 4,026m731.85mi / 1,177.79km91.67
West Virginia4,863ft / 1,482m2,781ft / 848m175.47mi / 282.39km57.19
Wisconsin1,951ft / 595m425ft / 130m91.84mi / 147.80km21.78
Wyoming13,804ft / 4,207m7,076ft / 2,156m290.12mi / 466.90km51.26
District of Columbia410ft / 125m75ft / 22m4.27mi / 6.87km18.29
American Samoa3,160ft / 963m3,160ft / 963m149.26mi / 240.22km100.00
Guam1,332ft / 406m1,332ft / 406m64.39mi / 103.62km100.00
Northern Marianas Is3,166ft / 965m3,166ft / 965m1,182.55mi / 1,903.14km100.00
Puerto Rico4,390ft / 1,338m4,390ft / 1,338m244.21mi / 393.02km100.00
US Virgin Is1,556ft / 474m1,556ft / 474m20.66mi / 33.25km100.00

* – Note that Connecticut doesn’t have prominence or isolation because it is a contour line on the side of Mt Frissell. Thus these measures have no meaning.

Edward Earl, over at COHP, has produced this map showing each state’s highpoint (HP), most prominent point (PP) and distance isolation point (IP). Please click on the map to see the map’s legend.

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Highpoints by various Difficulty measures

This map is based upon the work of Dr. Thomas Martin and his classification of the 50 State summits. The icons are color-coded by their Martin Classification and have three arms representing the Gain and round-trip Distance.

These two scatter plots show the Gain versus the Hiking Distance in linear (left) and log (right – for better readability) scales. I then ran a clustering algorithm to form clusters of peaks which are color-coded in the table below. These clusters are slightly different than those of the Martin Classification.

People are always curious about “How hard is it?”. This table presents the highpoints with various “difficulty” measures:
YDS – Yosemite Decimal System is mostly a technical climbing rating system
COHP – COHP Class Ratings is mostly a technical climbing rating system
Martin – Martin Classification based upon elevation gain and distance hiked
Gain – Total vertical gain in feet on the “standard” (easiest) route
Dist – Round-trip distance (trailhead to summit) in miles on the “standard” (easiest) route

State Elev YDS COHP Martin Gain Dist
Alabama2,407ft / 734m101(w)100.0
Alaska20,320ft / 6,194m441024,50056.0
Arizona12,633ft / 3,851m1163,5009.0
Arkansas2,753ft / 839m1122251.0
California14,494ft / 4,418m1176,75021.4
Colorado14,433ft / 4,399m1165,0009.0
Connecticut2,380ft / 725m1134503.6
Delaware448ft / 137m101(w)100.0
Florida345ft / 105m101(w)100.0
Georgia4,784ft / 1,458m112(w)4001.0
Hawaii13,796ft / 4,205m1122300.4
Idaho12,662ft / 3,859m3385,5006.8
Illinois1,235ft / 376m1022752.5
Indiana1,257ft / 383m101(b)100.1
Iowa1,670ft / 509m101(w)100.1
Kansas4,039ft / 1,231m101(w)100.0
Kentucky4,145ft / 1,263m101(w)100.1
Louisiana535ft / 163m1121501.8
Maine5,268ft / 1,606m1254,20010.4
Maryland3,360ft / 1,024m1137502.2
Massachusetts3,491ft / 1,064m101(w)200.1
Michigan1,979ft / 603m111(w)100.0
Minnesota2,301ft / 701m1146007.0
Mississippi806ft / 246m101(w)100.0
Missouri1,772ft / 540m111(w)300.4
Montana12,799ft / 3,901m4497,70022.2
Nebraska5,424ft / 1,653m101(w)100.0
Nevada13,140ft / 4,005m2264,4007.4
New Hampshire6,288ft / 1,917m101200.0
New Jersey1,803ft / 550m101(w)400.2
New Mexico13,161ft / 4,011m1163,2506.2
New York5,343ft / 1,629m1153,20014.8
North Carolina6,684ft / 2,037m101(w)1000.2
North Dakota3,506ft / 1,069m1124002.0
Ohio1,550ft / 472m101(w)100.0
Oklahoma4,973ft / 1,516m1147758.6
Oregon11,239ft / 3,426m4485,3008.0
Pennsylvania3,213ft / 979m101(w)100.0
Rhode Island812ft / 247m101(b)100.2
South Carolina3,560ft / 1,085m101(w)100.0
South Dakota7,242ft / 2,207m1141,5005.8
Tennessee6,643ft / 2,025m112(w)3301.0
Texas8,749ft / 2,667m1152,9508.4
Utah13,528ft / 4,123m2275,35028.8
Vermont4,393ft / 1,339m1135502.8
Virginia5,729ft / 1,746m1141,5008.6
Washington14,411ft / 4,392m4499,10016.0
West Virginia4,863ft / 1,482m101(w)200.3
Wisconsin1,951ft / 595m1111200.4
Wyoming13,804ft / 4,207m4498,65040.4
District of Columbia410ft / 125m101100.0
American Samoa3,160ft / 963m2243,1605.0
Guam1,332ft / 406m2237103.3
Northern Marianas Is3,166ft / 965m3363,1666.0
Puerto Rico4,390ft / 1,338m1116150.6
US Virgin Is1,556ft / 474m101100.0
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Wall Street Journal’s Jon Kamp takes a look at Highpointing and Britton Hill

The Wall Street Journal’s Jon Kamp took a look at the quest of various highpointers and the role Florida’s Britton Hill plays in the adventure.

 

It’s no Denali, but in the run for 50, each highpoint counts the same.

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Issue #116 of “Apex to Zenith” First Quarter 2017

Topic Page
48 Finishers
• Donny Roush
2, 6
50 and 48 5
Article – Ask a Guide – Can I Climb Gannett Peak? 12
Article – Highpointing with Kids 14
Article – Into Thick Air 19
Article – When HPs are not HPs 15
Board of Directors Election 25
Call for Awards 9
Completer Firsts, by State 4
County Highpointing 15
Editor’s Note – Dues Graph 10
Editor’s Note – Members by Count 11
Errata 6
Gathering in Arizona 7
Highpoint Updates
• Arizona – Humphreys Peak
• Colorado – Mt Elbert
• Illinois – Charles Mound
• Louisiana – Driskill Mountain
• Maine – Mt Katahdin
• Maryland – Backbone Mountain
• Nebraska – Panorama Point
• Nevada – Boundary Peak
• New York – Mt Marcy
• North Dakota – White Butte
• Ohio – Campbell Hill
• Oklahoma – Black Mesa
• Rhode Island – Jerimoth Hill
20 – 25
Klimbin’ Kollaborator 13
Le Cache 8
Lists! – Second Lap 26
MASSACHUSETTS 2017 16 – 19
Membership 9
Merc 27
Milestones 2, 28 – 31
New Members 9
President’s Message 8
Quiz – HP Geography 11
S.O.S. #40 Skin Cancer – part 1 or 2 7
Scholarship 7

If you are interested in this back issue, please contact the newsletter editor (newsletter@highpointers.org).

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